The imagery is a speciality of sculpture dedicated to the artistic representation of religious subjects, usually realistic and devotional, liturgical and for processional purpose. It is linked to the Catholic religion because of the iconic nature of it.
The most common technique is the polychrome wooden carving, which seeks the most convincing realism, sometimes through dresses and authentic costumes, hairpieces, etc. It is less frequent using clay or plaster. There are even workshops that produce images in series with a very poor artistic entity.
An example of an alive Cordovan sculptor and carver, Antonio Bernal Redondo was born in Cordoba on 13 February 1957. Antonio has usually inspired in friends and members of his family to make the face of his sculptures. Mud is his favourite toy. When he was twelve years old, he entered at the School of Arts and Crafts and decided to take a chance like imagery artist when he was thirty.
He graduated in Arts and Crafts in 1976, working as a draftsman, but he continued his training to become “imaginero”.
Then he started to work with his friend, also sculptor, Francisco Romero Zafra, performing many works for different brotherhoods of penance. In 2001 both artists decided to separate, and Antonio set up his own workshop which is currently in Doblas Square in Cordoba.
Task on the text:
_ Match to write sentences and decide which ones are correct:
  • Imagery sculptures are
  • Their origins come
  • The most popular technique
  • It is more frequent
  • Handmade sculptures are

  • usually realistic and devotional
  • from Catholic tradition
  • is polychrome wooden carving
  • using clay and plaster
  • worse than images in series

The raw material used for the art of plaiting is called esparto and esparto plant is called 'Atocha'. Esparto is a tough plant and rolled on itself with a length of about two feet.
There are two types of Esparto: cooked and green esparto.
Its resistance to lack of water is enormous and it is not necessary to water it beyond what heaven provides.
The collecting of this plant is very simple. It is usually collected during the last four months of the year.
The profession dates back to the Fifth century AD and its activity is developing in the Middle Ages and Modern.
The craft of basketry and vegetable fibres in Andalusia is still maintained alive thanks to the work of a large number of artisans.
In Cordoba, the last Cordovan “esparteros” are Estevez family since its fifth generation.
Task on the text
_ Join questions with the right answers:
  1. What is the name of the material used in plaiting?
    1. What is “esparto” like?
    2. How often is it collected?
    3. When did the first plaiting works appear?
    4. What do artisans make with this material?
    5. Who is Cordovan plaiting artist nowadays?
  2. It is water resistant.
  3. People collected it since the fifth century AD
  4. It is called “atocha”
  5. Every year for the last four months.
  6. Estevez family.
  7. They made basketry and vegetable fibres.
Jose Rusi opened his hat shop in 1903 in order to sell his handmade hats out of his factory. He got that the name Rusi was well-known even outside the province, becoming a reference in the world of hat. In 2003 they celebrated the centenary and that same year gets distinguished as the trading of the year. Nowadays his heirs still maintain this tradition.
The hats are made from high quality raw materials. They use a helmet made of hare skin; it is cooled with water, applying hot steam later. Once adapted the cup, the hat allowed drying. After the drying phase, they iron the wing to define the direction of hair.
Then they sew the skin with its tape all at hand, they dry the hat at room temperature and finally it is stored in its box.

Task on the text
_ Invent questions for these answers:
  1. Jose Rusi
  2. In 1903
  3. In 2003
  4. They are made of hare hair.
  5. At room temperature
  6. In boxes.

Gold and silverwork is one of the main driving forces of the city's economy. One of the best known techniques is
Cordovan filigree work, which consists of soldering gold or silver threads onto a metal structure to create different shapes.
Known since ancient times its moment of splendour was reached in the middle Ages, which highlights it’s specialized in the region of Al-Andalus and more specifically in the Cordovan capital work.
Francisco Muñoz Fernández was one of the icons of jewelry in Cordoba. He was a student at the School of Arts and Crafts, with only 17 years he set up his own company. It was dedicated to the manufacture of silver filigree made for other manufacturers who subsequently went to sell under their own brand. He pioneered the development of tooling techniques. He was a founding member of the Guild of Jewellers and Manufacturers Association for export. He died in 2009.
Task on the text
­ _ Find these key words in the text and copy their sentences:
  • Silverwork:
  • Middle Ages:
  • Soldering:
  • Icon:
  • Specialized:
  • Brand:
Cordoba has pottery from prehistory, with excellent quality mud across the province. La Rambla is the main potter core of the Cordoba province. For processing the pieces, the craftsmen use yellowish clay which leaves some small holes during cooking for venting and refreshing the water. The techniques of glazing and painted objects are used too. Potters have managed to evolve and ceramics here is booming, with the creation of a Museum of Ceramics of La Rambla and the annual celebration of International Ceramics Competition sponsored by the Association of
Craftsmen Potters. The second area in importance is Lucena, where there is a great pottery tradition. Cordoba city still had in the forties with fifteen potteries, and currently retains some potteries as the sons of Rafael Valle and Rafael Moreno. Also in the capital, there are forefront ceramists as Carmen Alvarez and Ana Molina, and Raku workshop Luisa Garcia.
Task on the text
_ Match and make right sentences. Which is the wrong one?
  • Cordoba has pottery since
  • The main potter places are
  • There is a popular Ceramic
  • There are also forefront
  • Clay is me most common
  • Technique of gazing is

  • not used in pottery.
  • the Prehistory time.
  • the villages called La Rambla and Lucena.
  • ceramists in Cordoba city.
  • Museum in La Rambla.
  • material to produce pottery.

Leather is the raw material of Cordobán and Guadamecí. Embossed leather patterned and painted with classic and contemporary designs. Handmade leather works which the Arabs introduced in the sixteenth century. In the Cordoba Caliphate this art reached its top.
It is made with gold leaf, silver leaf, dyes and oil painting. Jose Luis Bazan is a third-generation Cordovan craftsman dedicated to the art of Cordovan Guadameci.
Task on the text
Make a Minf Map using the information:

The guitar is a musical instrument consisting of a wooden box, a mast, a fingerboard on it with an acoustic hole in the center of the lid and six strings. Its specific name is classical or Spanish guitar. Its origins are unclear. There are theories which claim that the guitar was introduced in Spain during the invasion of the Arabs in the eighth century. However, other theories claim that its origins date back to the time of the Greeks. There are also indications of the existence of a guitar in Egyptian culture. But the first guitar with a similar aspect to the current one, appeared in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century, which has led to other guitars today (acoustic, electric, etc.)

One of the best guitar makers in the world is Manuel Reyes who was born in 1949 in Cordoba. He studied photography and he began to make guitars when he was 15. The types of wood he uses for his guitars are spruce and pine. He has made guitars for many people in Spain.

Draw a guitar and name its parts on it

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